The life sciences sector’s growth correlates highly with countries’ general economic strength and health care spending levels, and both of these vary widely around the globe.  Most life sciences organizations appear to be adopting an attitude of cautious optimism. Significant opportunities exist in the global marketplace but challenges exist, as well. Spending growth in pharmaceuticals (pharma), biotechnology (biotech), and medical technologies (medtech) is projected to follow an upward trend due to increasing demand, but pricing challenges are still an issue. Industry margins are being eroded by high discounts, retail sector price controls, public sector purchasing policies, and the move to value-based care. Strong economic growth looks hard to come by in many countries; therefore, assumptions on health spending may need to be revised downward. In response to today’s dynamically changing clinical, regulatory, and business landscape, pharma, biotech, and medtech companies are re-evaluating and adapting traditional research and development (R&D), pricing, supply chain, and commercial models.